After 1572 trade commenced also between Manila and New Spain, which for individual Spaniards in Manila proved very profitable. Between 1590 and 1595, however, the citizens of Manila petitioned several times to the King for liberty of trade, but always in vain ; the restriction on commerce remained as before. In 1610 the Seville merchants begged that the trade between Manila and New Spain might be closed, as they wanted to do business direct by the Cape with Manila without the intervention of the American colonies. This was, nevertheless, impossible, on account principally, no doubt, of the fact that the Acapulco silk trade gave occupation to over 14,000 persons in Mexico. Galleons were sent every year from Manila to Navidad, and from 1602 to Acapulco, containing merchandise to the value of $250,000, the maximum permitted by the government, and bringing back double the price. Later this maximum rose to $300,000, and in 1734 to $500,000. Finally the amount reached $600,000, and the home freight double the value. From Manila the galleons, called naos, took spices, cotton fabrics, silks, etc., with gold articles and other products of China, India, and the Philippines. Fifty thousand silk stockings are also especially mentioned. (Refer : Lord Anson’s “Journey Round the World,” 1749, and the description of Spanish commerce by J. C. S., Dresden, 1763.) The home freight consisted chiefly of silver dollars, and there were also passengerspersons going to seek their fortune in the Philippinesand officials and soldiers sent out by the Madrid government as substitutes. The merchandise yielded twice its value in Manila, and, as is recorded, sometimes even four times, which in certain cases may no doubt have happened. The profit, however, did not all go into one pocket, but was divided among a number. The government issued warrants (boletins) restricting the shipping of cargoes to the monasteries, pensioned officials, and other privileged persons, who then sold them to merchants. In this manner the profits were distributed. The result was that merchandise of very high value was shipped, and the nao often so packed with cargo that the guns had to be stowed away. On the home journey there was often over $3,000,000 value on board. As these ships were maintained at the expense of the government, it is natural that a portion of the shipping fees was reserved for the royal exchequer.